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2014职称英语《卫生C》真题及答案:阅读理解(代

2015-04-03 14:13 [历年真题] 来源于:未知
导读:第四部分:阅读理解 短文后有5道题,每题后面有4个选项。请仔细阅读短文并根据短文回答其后面的问题,从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。 第一篇:The Bilingua

第四部分:阅读理解

短文后有5道题,每题后面有4个选项。请仔细阅读短文并根据短文回答其后面的问题,从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。

第一篇:The Bilingual Brain

When Karl Kim immigrated to the United States from Korea s a teenager, he had a hard time learning English. Now he speaks it fluently, and he had a unique opportunity to see how our brains adapt to a second language. As a graduate student, Kim worked in the lab of Joy Hirsch, a neuroscientist in New York. Their work led to an important discovery. They found evidence that children and adults don't use the same parts of the brain when they learn a second language.

The researchers used an instrument called an MRI( magnetic resonance imaging) scanner to study the brains of two groups of bilingual people. One group consisted of those who had learned a second language as children…… The other consisted of people who, like Kim, learned their second language later in life. People from both groups were placed inside the MRI scanner. This allowed Kim and Hirsch to see which parts of the brain were getting more blood and were more active. They asked people from both groups to think about what they had done the day before, first in one language and then the other. They couldn't speak out loud because any movement would disrupt the scanning.

Kim and Hirsch looked specifically at two language centers in the brain - Broca's area~ , which is believed to control speech production, and Wernicke's area, which is thought to process

meaning. Kim and Hirsch found that both groups of people used the same part of Wernicke's area no matter what language they were speaking. But their use of Broca's area was different.

People who learned a second language as children used the same region in Broca's area for both their first and second languages. People who learned a second language later in life used a different part of Broca's area for their second language. How does Hirsch explain this difference? Hirsch believes that when language is first being programmed in young children, their brains may mix the sounds and structures of all languages in the same area. Once that programming is complete, the processing of a new language must be taken over by a different part of the brain. .

A second possibility is simply that we may acquire languages differently as children than we do as adults. Hirsch thinks that mothers teach a baby to speak by using different methods involving touch, sound, and sight. And that is very different from learning a language in a high school or college class.

31. Kad Kim‘s study showed that

A. people learn English and Korean in different ways .

B. children and adults use the different parts of the brain to learn a second language.

C. it is not possible for an adult to speak a second language fluently.

D. people‘s brain will not change when they learn a second language

答案:B

32. How did kim and Hirsch study the brains of two groups of bilingual people?

A. They interviewed them in English and Korean.

B. They asked them to speak the same language.

C. They used an MRI scanner to observe their brain.

D. They asked them to talk about what they had done the day before.

答案:C

33.Which aspect of the two language centers in the brain does Paragraph 3 discuss?

A. Impact

B. Function

C. Location

D. Size

答案:B

34. Kim and Hirsch find that children

A. use the same region in Broca‘s area to learn their first and second language.

B. learn a second language slower than adults.

C. are better at acquiring the sound system of a second language than adults.

D. use special parts of the brain to program the structures of their first language.

答案:A

35. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that

A. students do better in high school than in college.

B. bilingual children will learn better in college classes.

C. mothers are good language teachers

D. it takes more time for adults to learn a second language.

答案:D

第二篇: Approaches to Understanding Intelligences

It pays to be smart, but we are not all smart in the same way .You may be a talented musician, but you might not be a good reader . Each of us is different .

Psychologists disagree about what is intelligence and what are talents or personal abilities .Psychologists have two different views on intelligence .Some believe there is one general intelligence .Others believe there are many different intelligences .

Some psychologists say there is one type of intelligence that can be measured with IQ tests .These psychologists support their view with research that concludes that people who do well on one kind of test for mental ability do well on other tests .They do well on tests using words ,numbers or pictures. They do well on individual or group tests ,and written or oral tests .Those who do poorly on one test ,do the same on all tests .

Studies of the brain show that there is a biological basis for general intelligence .The brain of intelligence people use less energy during problem solving .The brain waves of people with higher intelligence show a quicker reaction .Some researchers conclude that differences in intelligence result from differences in the speed and effectiveness of information processing by the brain .

Howard Gardner , a psychologist at the Harvard School of Education ,has four children .He believes that all children are different and shouldn‘t be tested by one intelligence test .Although Gardner believes general intelligence exists , he doesn’t think it tells much about the talents of a person outside of formal schooling .He think that the human mind has different intelligences .These intelligences allow us to solve the kinds of problems we are presented with in life .Each of us has different abilities within these intelligences .Gardner believes that the purpose of school should be to encourage development of all of our intelligences .

Gardner says that his theory is based on biology .For example ,when one part of the Brain is injured ,other parts of the brain still work .People who cannot talk because of Brain damage can still sing .So ,there is not just one intelligence to lose .Gardner has identified 8 different kinds of intelligence; linguistic, mathematical, spatial, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, body-kinesthetic(身体动觉的),and naturalistic .

36.What is the main idea of this passage ?

A. The importance of intelligence .

B. The development of intelligence tests .

C. . How to become intelligent .

D. How to understand intelligence

答案:D

37.Which of the following statements is true concerning general intelligence ?

A. Most intelligent people do well on some intelligence tests .

B. Intelligent people do not do well on group tests .

C. Intelligent people do better on written tests than on oral tests .

D. People doing well on one type of intelligence test do well on other tests .

答案:D

38.Gardner believes that ________ .

A. all children are alike .

B. children should take one intelligence test .

C. there is no general intelligence .

D. children have different intelligences .

答案:D

39.According to Gardner, schools should ________ .

A. test students‘ IQs .

B. promote development of all intelligences .

C. train students who do poorly on tests .

D. focus on finding the most intelligent students .

答案:B

40.Gardner thinks that his theory has a ________ .

A. musical foundation .

B. biological foundation .

C. intrapersonal foundation .

D. linguistic foundation .

答案:B

第三篇: Some Sleep Drugs Do More Than Make You Sleep

The United States Food and Drug Administration1 has ordered companies to place strong new warnings on thirteen drugs that treat sleep disorders. It also ordered the makers of the sleeping pills to provide information for patients explaining how to safely use the drugs.

Last Wednesday, the FDA announced that some of these drugs can have unexpected and dangerous effects. These include the risk of life-threatening allergic reactions. They also include rare incidents of strange behavior. These include people cooking food, eating and even driving while asleep. The patients later had no memory of doing these activities while asleep.

Last year, a member of the United States Congress2 said he had a sleep-driving incident. Patrick Kennedy, a representative from Rhode Island3,crashed his car into a security barrier near the building where lawmakers meet. The accident happened in the middle of the night and no one was hurt. Mr. Kennedy said he had earlier taken a sleep medicine. He said he was also being treated with a stomach sickness drug that could cause sleepiness.

The FDA did not say in its announcement how many cases of sleep-driving it had documented. However, the New York Times4 reported last year about people who said they had strange sleep events after taking the drug Ambien. Some reported sleep-driving and sleep-walking. Others said they found evidence after waking in the morning that they had cooked food or eaten in their sleep. But they had no memory of carrying out the activities.

An FDA official says that these serious side effects of sleep disorder drugs appear to be rare. But, he also says there are probably more cases than are reported.5 He says the agency believes the risk of such behaviors could be reduced if people take the drugs as directed and do not drink alcohol while taking the drugs. The Food and Drug Administration has advised drug companies to carry out studies to investigate the problem.

41. The FDA announced that

A. thirteen drug companies were closed last Wednesday.

B. only thirteen drugs could treat sleeping disordera.

C. some sleep drugs could lead to serious side effects.

D. some makers of sleeping pills provided false information to their patients.

答案:C

42. The FDA warned that some sleeping pills

A. can help people to learn to cook

B. prevent people from driving while asleep.

C. present life-threatening risk to patients

D. have severe effect on a patient‘s long-term memory

答案:D

43. What happened to Patrick Kennedy last year?

A. He crashed his car into a security barrier.

B. He was killed during a car accident.

C. His car broke down on the way home .

D. He was treated for stomachache.

答案:A

44. After taking the drug Ambien, some people

A. are unable drive.

B. don‘t know how to cook.

C. suffer from eating problems.

D. fall asleep while walking.

答案:D

45. The risk of strange behaviors resulting from taking sleeping pills could be reduced it

A. the FDA takes more strict regulations.

B. drug companies listen to patients‘ advice.

C. the New York Times releases more reports.

D. people don‘t drink alcohol while taking these pills.

答案:D

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